Remote File Inclusion (RFI): A method of uploading a shell by an off-site link.
Local File Inclusion (LFI) AKA Directory traversal attack: A method of pulling usernames and passwords off a website vulnerable to the exploit of insufficient security validation / sanitization of user-supplied input file names.
Blind Structured Query Language Injection (blind SQLI): Method of once again insufficiant security validation and sanitization of user-input. Basic SQLi This is the easiest method of SQLi. This method allows you to enter codes such as ' or '1'='1 into the username and password fields to gain access. E.g. you find the admin login on a site and you may enter the correct username admin and the password as: ' or '1'='1.
Cross site request forgery (CSRF): An attack that is commonly sent by e-mail or other means and often tricks a user. Links given to a target may include HTML, something like this: Code: <img src="http://bank.example/withdraw?account=bob&amount=100&for=mallory" height="1" width="1" border="0"> And this will be activated through the victims browser and the site will think it was a valid and intentional move.
Public Exploits: Public exploits are just scripts that people have released for others to use. Such as this exploit which exploits a webserver running this program on one of its open ports. I suggest you have a quick look through the script to see how/why it works. The way of finding which software you target is using is by using Namp or the GUI Zenmap
DNS hijacking: This is the method or redirecting the domain name to a rouge domain name. This method is used particually in phishing attacks.
Bruteforcing: This method is the practise of running a program to keep guessing the password and username of a site. This method is fastly going out of fashion as the max login attempts are added and even without this obstical, it can take weeks to gain the correct password. Programs commonly used for this are hydra and Brutus.
Password Guessing: Yes, just as it sounds. This is the method of just guessing common passwords such as:
Packet Sniffing: If you find a site with FTP access, there may be a chance you can use a tool such as cain and abel to sniff their password and username when the login. Not a very easy task as the trafic is sometimes encrypted.
RCE (Remote Command Execution): This is the method of making the server read command that you have entered for it to. E.g. Code: index.php?cmd=whoami index.php?cmd=net user
Social Enginering: A common method used to gain information. This can be a long process, but an effective one. They can patch software, but it will always be people's ignorance that will let you/your target down.
Cookie poisoning: This is a method of editing cookies you have already gained, to gain extra privileges. Not a very common method now as of cookies being encrypted, and having to be signed. This exploit can work on some surprising sites, take a look, you may be surprised.
Parameter tampering: An attack usual done by moderfying values in the url. E.g. changing a value to decrease the amount you have to pay on something. Code: <input type=”hidden” id=”1008” name=”cost” value=”70.00”>
Tamper Data: A very nifty Firefox addon which is used to modify http/https headers and post parameters.
Admin Auth bypass: This exploit can be as simple as adding: Code: ?action=edit To a URL. This exploit when a server/application allows you to edit by having the valid URL, instead of by cookies. Another method of admin auth bypass is editting the html to proceed even if the password is wrong.